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Accelerated Aging of Rejuvenated Cables – Part I

April 19, 2005

This paper provides part I of a framework for the prediction of the effective life extension of cables treated with rejuvenating chemicals under accelerated aging conditions. Utilizing the principles of molecular thermodynamics and a cable’s soil regime, soil thermal conductivity, and load profile, it is possible to make accurate estimations of life extension for legacy technologies and for new advanced technologies.

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Improving Post-Treatment Reliability: Eliminating Fluid-Component Compatibility Issues

November 1, 2005

For the past two decades fluid injection technology has almost always put the treatment fluid in direct contact with rubber termination and splice components. The incompatibility of the treatment fluids with silicone rubber components has been well known for most of this time. This paper discusses two other compatibility issues which affect the post-treatment performance of rejuvenation when fluid comes in direct contact with EPDM and EPR components. A robust solution which eliminates the issues and improves post-treatment reliability is introduced.

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Accelerated Aging of Rejuvenated Cables—Part II

November 1, 2005

This paper provides part II of a framework for the prediction of the effective life extension of cables treated with rejuvenating chemicals under accelerated aging conditions. Utilizing the principles of molecular thermodynamics and a cable’s soil regime, soil thermal conductivity, and load profile, it is possible to make accurate estimations of life extension for legacy fluids and methods as well as for methods that tailor the chemistry to the circuit performance requirements. Part II of this two-part paper introduces an improved model which includes and integrates all of the refinements introduced by Part I, plus: all cable layers; not just the insulation, dynamics of fluctuating temperature, molecular thermodynamics of component interactions, and reaction kinetics.

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Choosing the Best Underground Cable Rehabilitation Option

February 18, 2006

Over twenty years have elapsed since the field introduction of the first solid dielectric enhancement technology. During those years, this technology has proven itself as an important tool to enhance the reliability of aging infrastructure. Incremental improvements during those twenty years have aided in the widespread commercial acceptance of the technology on at least four continents. For the majority of these two decades there was a single supplier of injection technology. Beginning in 2006 novel injection approaches, which include new installation methods and new materials to extend the life of power cables, have become available. This paper provides a comparison of the merits of the available technologies. Comparisons are made in the broad categories of safety, short-term and long-term post-injection reliability, and end-user value.

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Cable Rejuvenation Mechanisms

March 14, 2006

Recent advances in cable life extension technology have demonstrated a greater than three-fold life improvement over earlier generations. While simply supplying an adequate amount of fluid explains a portion of these performance gains, this paper addresses several other important factors required to understand long-term post injection reliability. The chemistry of oligomerization, which determines how long a treatment persists in the cable, and the mechanisms of cable failure, which are addressed by the injection technology are described.

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NEETRAC ANSI C119.4 Tests of Novinium Injection Adapter

August 15, 2006

Novinium requested that NEETRAC evaluate the performance of two sizes of adapter barrels designed to facilitate the injection of underground cables with restoration fluid. The goal of the test program was to establish the current loading and mechanical performance characteristics of various length elbow connectors installed on Novinium adapter barrels installed with a special crimping tool as compared to standard elbow connectors installed with a standard crimping tool. The tests were conducted on cables with 1/0 AWG and 1,000 kcmil aluminum conductor sizes.

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Underground Distribution Reliability: The 5•Ps

May 7, 2007

Reconciling the financial considerations of the underground distribution circuit owner with the reliability needs of its customers has traditionally been viewed as a zero-sumgame with the circuit owner on one side and the electrical customer and the regulator on the other. This paper introduces a hierarchy of needs which allows an appropriate balance to be optimized and sustained … maximum reliability with the highest capital efficiency. Various strategic and tactical options may be viewed through the prism of the hierarchy of the 5•Ps (i.e. 5 cable populations: post-failure, problematic, preemptive, proactive, and preventative). A simple net present value (NPV) analysis is overlaid on the 5•Ps and quickly leads the circuit owner to the optimum strategic and tactical choices. Data from field experience provides validation of the models employed and benchmarks for the circuit owner to compare their own strategies and tactics.

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