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Technical Papers

Novinium’s experts have published dozens of papers detailing the science behind cable rejuvenation, manhole events, neutral corrosion, and more.

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Injection Device Choices Paper

Injection Device Choices for Rejuvenating Cables

October 24, 2017

The choice of injection devices to deliver rejuvenation fluid to aging cables has changed considerably over the past few decades. This paper tells a brief history of devices relative to how cable rejuvenation processes have evolved beyond unsustained pressure rejuvenation (UPR) toward improved unsustained pressure rejuvenation (iUPR), and sustained pressure rejuvenation (SPR), examines the injection devices and terminations utilized for modern rejuvenation, and discusses the advantages and limitations of each device type.

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Rejuvenation Upgrade Paper

Rejuvenation Upgrade

October 19, 2017

The case for a rejuvenation upgrade is even more compelling than the original case for treatment. Thirty years of experience all but eliminate the technology risk. A cable’s neutral condition has a baseline measurement which can be compared to the current condition. This comparison allows accurate extrapolation to future periods. Next-gen fluids are designed to deal with all significant aging mechanisms including ephemeral partial discharge. A cable’s suitability to be treated is pre-established. Early field results will be reviewed.

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Better Next Year

May 12, 2017

The work presented in this paper utilizes very large data sets to compare the post-installation reliability of rejuvenation and replacement. The results shed light upon off-line partial discharge diagnostic testing. Either or both of the following propositions are true: (1) Electrical trees are rare and/or (2) rejuvenation adequately addresses electrical trees. Data to support both propositions are presented.

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Using Real-Time Data Logging to Detect Unsafe Conditions and Safeguard Against Manhole Events

April 11, 2017

Thousands of manhole events occur in North America each year and the frequency of events appear to be rising as electrical, gas and water infrastructure ages. Actively monitoring these spaces in real time and receiving actionable alarms will allow service owners to take action before issues occur. Novinium has spent the last two years developing a real-time low maintenance data logger for use in subterranean confined spaces, which is detailed in the contents of this paper.

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PreVent Water Control Manhole Cover Datasheet

PreVent™ Water Control Cover Datasheet

January 1, 2017

Most manhole ventilation solutions fail to prevent higher levels of water and salt from entering the manhole. Secondary cable deterioration produces combustible gases that can lead to a manhole event. The PreVent™ manhole cover is engineered with a set of channels and grooves that divert water, salt, and other debris away from the manhole.

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PreVent Active Venting Datasheet

PreVent™ Active Venting Datasheet

January 1, 2017

Utilities rely on vented manhole covers to let combustible gases escape, but these passive solutions are insufficient for maintaining safe manholes. To provide adequate safety for manhole structures, a more active venting solution is required. The PreVent™ active manhole venting solution provides active venting for manholes to keep combustible gases from collecting and potentially causing a manhole event.

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PreVent Active Monitoring Datasheet

PreVent™ Active Monitoring DataSheet

January 1, 2017

Utilities fail to predict manhole events because they lack ongoing insight into manhole environmental conditions. As a result, many of these utilities fear that a catastrophic event can happen anywhere at any time.

Monitor manhole conditions in real time with PreVent™ active manholemonitoring and data logging. Use data from a variety of sensors to predict manhole events before they occur.

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Modular Injection Component

November 1, 2016

The new Modular Injection Component (MIC) is the first cable accessory purpose-built and optimized for fluid injection. As well as enabling sustained pressure rejuvenation on energized cables, the MIC system further addresses several other limitations and shortcomings of current injection elbows.

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Neutral Corrosion – Significance, Causes & Mitigation

August 30, 2016

This paper reviews six neutral corrosion issues and provides data to shed some light on the overall significance of the phenomenon. The paper draws upon IEEE 1617 and encompasses and expands upon the 1617 scope. This paper defines the purposes of the neutral, the consequences of excessive corrosion, the causes and chemical dynamics of neutral corrosion, dimensions the severity of the issue in North America, describes how to detect neutral corrosion, and provides options to address neutral corrosion once discovered. The paper also suggests areas for future work to provide guidance to circuit owners on the likelihood of neutral corrosion issues in their service territories.

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How Hot Is It? A Survey of Temperatures Inside Medium-Voltage Electrical Enclosure Across North America

June 19, 2016

This paper studies the temperatures recorded inside electrical enclosures throughout North America. The results were collected over the course of a year at four geographically different locations in cryic, mesic, thermic and hyperthermic soils and from systems operating with phase to phase voltages of 15 through 35kV. This paper illustrates the effects that the ambient conditions, seasonal load fluctuation and installation factors have on the temperatures measured inside enclosures. The internal temperatures impact the safety and long-term durability of the ancillary equipment often contained within distribution-class electrical enclosures such as cable rejuvenation equipment, rejuvenation fluid, smart sensors, partial-discharges sensors, fault indicators, etc. and this data should be given consideration in the standards and installation guidelines for those devices.

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