Knomentous Customer Login Cable Tracking System
Menu

Technical Papers

Sort by date Newest first Oldest first
Sort by title A to Z Z to A

A Comparison of Rejuvenation Hazards

January 19, 2011

Over two decades have elapsed since the commercial introduction of the first solid dielectric enhancement technology or chemical rejuvenation. During those years, silane injection has proven itself as an important tool to enhance the reliability of aging infrastructure. There are some risks associated with rejuvenation. Some of those risks are shared with replacement. Some risks are unique to injection. This document examines the risks of chemical rejuvenation utilizing the two most widespread commercial injection methods and materials for URD cables.

Learn More >

Accelerated Aging of Rejuvenated Cables – Part I

April 19, 2005

This paper provides part I of a framework for the prediction of the effective life extension of cables treated with rejuvenating chemicals under accelerated aging conditions. Utilizing the principles of molecular thermodynamics and a cable’s soil regime, soil thermal conductivity, and load profile, it is possible to make accurate estimations of life extension for legacy technologies and for new advanced technologies.

Learn More >

Accelerated Aging of Rejuvenated Cables—Part II

November 1, 2005

This paper provides part II of a framework for the prediction of the effective life extension of cables treated with rejuvenating chemicals under accelerated aging conditions. Utilizing the principles of molecular thermodynamics and a cable’s soil regime, soil thermal conductivity, and load profile, it is possible to make accurate estimations of life extension for legacy fluids and methods as well as for methods that tailor the chemistry to the circuit performance requirements. Part II of this two-part paper introduces an improved model which includes and integrates all of the refinements introduced by Part I, plus: all cable layers; not just the insulation, dynamics of fluctuating temperature, molecular thermodynamics of component interactions, and reaction kinetics.

Learn More >

Advances in Chemical Rejuvenation of Submarine Cables

June 24, 2007

Submarine cables spanning two or more kilometers have proven challenging to apply conventional rejuvenation technology. Novel approaches, which include new installation methods and new materials to extend the life of submarine power cables, are described. Theory, experiments, and field results demonstrate that these new approaches address the shortcomings of the earlier technology. The technology described can be tailored to provide: (1) more rapid short-term reliability, (2) longer rejuvenated cable life, (3) an inherently safer installation, (4) a tailored formulation paradigm which adjusts the chemistry to account for significant operational variables, and (5) a process which can address any length of cable.

Learn More >

Advances in Chemical Rejuvenation: Extending Medium Voltage Cable Life 40 Years

June 24, 2007

Recent advances in cable life extension technology have demonstrated a greater than three-fold life improvement over earlier generations. While simply supplying an adequate amount of fluid explains a portion of these performance gains, this paper addresses several other important factors required to understand long-term post injection reliability. The mechanisms of cable failure, which are addressed by the newest injection technology, are briefly reviewed. The focus of the paper is on the chemistry of oligomerization, which determines how long a treatment persists in the cable. Three commercially available chemistry choices are compared.

Learn More >

Better Next Year

May 12, 2017

The work presented in this paper utilizes very large data sets to compare the post-installation reliability of rejuvenation and replacement. The results shed light upon off-line partial discharge diagnostic testing. Either or both of the following propositions are true: (1) Electrical trees are rare and/or (2) rejuvenation adequately addresses electrical trees. Data to support both propositions are presented.

Learn More >

Cable Rejuvenation Mechanisms

March 14, 2006

Recent advances in cable life extension technology have demonstrated a greater than three-fold life improvement over earlier generations. While simply supplying an adequate amount of fluid explains a portion of these performance gains, this paper addresses several other important factors required to understand long-term post injection reliability. The chemistry of oligomerization, which determines how long a treatment persists in the cable, and the mechanisms of cable failure, which are addressed by the injection technology are described.

Learn More >

Cable Rejuvenation Mechanisms: An Update

October 17, 2010

Recent advances in cable life extension technology have demonstrated a greater than three-fold life improvement over earlier generations. This paper provides an update to a 2006 “Cable Rejuvenation Mechanisms” paper providing the most up-to-date fluid formulations and performance data.

Learn More >

Choosing the Best Underground Cable Rehabilitation Option

February 18, 2006

Over twenty years have elapsed since the field introduction of the first solid dielectric enhancement technology. During those years, this technology has proven itself as an important tool to enhance the reliability of aging infrastructure. Incremental improvements during those twenty years have aided in the widespread commercial acceptance of the technology on at least four continents. For the majority of these two decades there was a single supplier of injection technology. Beginning in 2006 novel injection approaches, which include new installation methods and new materials to extend the life of power cables, have become available. This paper provides a comparison of the merits of the available technologies. Comparisons are made in the broad categories of safety, short-term and long-term post-injection reliability, and end-user value.

Learn More >

Categories